Метафора - оборот речи, включающий в себя скрытое уподобление, образное сближение слов на базе их переносного значения.

Метафора может объяснить непонятное, связывая это с тем, что вы уже знаете.

Which now, like fruit unripe, sticks on the tree;
But fall, unshaken, when they mellow be.


A large spider in an old house built a beautiful web in which to catch flies. Every time a fly landed on the web and was entangled in it the spider devoured him, so that when another fly came along he would think the web was a safe and quiet place in which to rest. One day a fairly intelligent fly buzzed around above the web so long without lighting that the spider appeared and said, "Come on down." But the fly was too clever for him and said, "I never light where I don't see other flies and I don't see any other flies in your house." So he flew away until he came to a place where there were a great many other flies. He was about to settle down among them when a bee buzzed up and said, "Hold it, stupid, that's flypaper. All those flies are trapped." "Don't be silly," said the fly, "they're dancing." So he settled down and became stuck to the flypaper with all the other flies.

Moral: There is no safety in numbers, or in anything else.

-- James Thurber, "The Fairly Intelligent Fly"

A mother mouse was taking her large brood for a stroll across the kitchen floor one day when the local cat, by a feat of stealth unusual even for its species, managed to trap them in a corner. The children cowered, terrified by this fearsome beast, plaintively crying, "Help, Mother! Save us! Save us! We're scared, Mother!"

Mother Mouse, with the hopeless valor of a parent protecting its children, turned with her teeth bared to the cat, towering huge above them, and suddenly began to bark in a fashion that would have done any Doberman proud. The startled cat fled in fear for its life.

As her grateful offspring flocked around her shouting "Oh, Mother, you saved us!" and "Yay! You scared the cat away!" she turned to them purposefully and declared, "You see how useful it is to know a second language?"

A pencil with no point needs no eraser.
All I know is what the words know, and dead things, and that makes a handsome little sum, with a beginning and a middle and an end, as in the well-built phrase and the long sonata of the dead.

Samuel Beckett

Anyone who has had a bull by the tail knows five or six more things than someone who hasn't.

Mark Twain

A certain amount of opposition is a help, not a hindrance. Kites rise against the wind, not with it.
But, you must know, your father lost a father;
That father lost, lost his, and the survivor bound

W.Shkespeare Hamlet

Be wary then; best safety lies in fear.
KING CLAUDIUS Break not your sleeps for that: you must not think
That we are made of stuff so flat and dull
That we can let our beard be shook with danger

And think it pastime.

Hello. Just walk along and try NOT to think about your INTESTINES being almost FORTY YARDS LONG!!
Do not worry about which side your bread is buttered on: you eat BOTH sides.
Drilling for oil is boring.
Every morning in Africa, a gazelle wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the fastest lion or it will be killed. Every morning a lion wakes up. It knows it must outrun the slowest gazelle or it will starve to death. It doesn't matter whether you are a lion or a gazelle: when the sun comes up, you'd better be running.
I go on working for the same reason a hen goes on laying eggs.

-- H.L. Mencken

On the street I saw a naked child, hungry and shivering in the cold.I became angry and said to God, "Why do you permit this? Why don't you do something?" For a while God said nothing. That night he replied. He said, "I certainly did something. I made you."
Minds, like parachutes, only function when they are open.
A dog thinks: Hey, these people I live with feed me, love me, provide me with a nice warm, dry house, pet me, and take good care of me... They must be Gods!

A cat thinks: Hey, these people I live with feed me, love me, provide me with a nice warm,

dry house, pet me, and take good care of me... I must be a God!

To sow seed ideas.
To regain the floor.
...because a very wise person once said, "you can light a million candles off just one"... but your candle has to be lit first. If you light up, if we light up all of our candles while we're together here, then we can spread a conspiracy of ecstasy.
Positive intentions are like light. Their purpose is to bring illumination and warmth to the world. Symptoms and problematic behaviors emerge out of the darkness - the places that the light is unable to reach.
NLP principles and presuppositions are like the fundamental concepts of Euclidian geometry. For instance, Euclid built his geometry upon the concept of the 'point'. A point is defined as 'an entity that has a position but no other properties'-it has no size, no mass, no color, no shape. It is of course impossible to prove that a point really has no size, mass, color, etc. However, if you accept this presupposition, along with a few others, you can build a whole system of geometry. The conclusions of this system can then be 'proved' with respect to their adherence to the fundamental but unproven concepts. It is important to realize that one does not have to accept Euclid's assumption about a point in order to create a geometry. There are other geometries based on different presuppositions. [For instance, MIT mathematician Seymour Pappert (1980) built his fascinating 'Turtle geometry' for children substituting the notion of a 'Turtle' for a 'point'; a 'Turtle' being an entity that has a position and a direction.]

Rex Steven Sikes

Our maps of the world, however, are limited and don't always provide us with all the possible choices.
The notion of "imprinting" comes largely from the work of Nobel laureate Konrad Lorenz. He found out that when ducklings first hatched, for about a day or so, they would look for a 'mother-figure.' The ducklings searched for only one particular sub-modality to define their mother. All the mother had to do was to move. If something moved the ducklings would follow it. They would follow Lorenz around while he was walking, for instance.

After a day or so the duckling would have completed its 'imprint' of the mother. After the imprint period was up, if you brought back the real mother they would ignore her completely, choosing instead to follow the individual or object to which they had been imprinted. So, when Lorenz got up in the morning, instead of being out in their nest, the ducklings that had been following him would be all curled up on the porch around his wading boots.

As a result of Leary's ideas, I gained a new appreciation for the significance of people's personal history. I realized that some traumatic episodes experienced by clients were more than simply bad memories. They were belief and identity forming "imprints" involving significant others (if your mother is a duck, for instance, it says a lot about you as well).

The power of this metaphor is that 'healing' is likened to 'gardening'. You can't make a tree grow. Rather, you can prepare the soil. The gardener doesn't go, "I'm going to make this tree grow, no matter what!" But what the gardener can do is to remove the rocks, make sure the soil is fertile and see that thorns aren't surrounding the seedling. That is the essence of Jesus' view of change. In order for a new belief to strengthen and for new capabilities and behaviors to develop it is necessary to:
  1. Deepen the experiences which will serve as the references for the new belief or behavior.
  2. Address the internal resistances and interferences to the new belief or behavior.
  3. Deal with any incongruence or conflicts within the person or his/her environment.

I amplified this by saying "You know, sometimes I see a guy with a woman like your wife and at first I'm envious but then I think to myself: 'You know, having a woman like that would be sort of like owning a very expensive car that you'd always have to worry about being stolen.'"

Lee Lady

"Why don't you tell him that you were born with one asshole and you don't need another in your life."
An example of a social constraint given by Bandler and Grinder (1975) is the number of colors named in a language. They describe the Maidu language, used by Native Americans in Northern California, who use only three words to cover the spectrum: lak (red), tit (green-blue), and tulak (yellow-orange-brown). Humans are able to distinguish several million colors at once, but we break the spectrum down into manageable chunks.

Christopher Hedberg

For example, it is useful for us to be able to generalize from the experience of being burned when we touch a hot stove to a rule that hot stoves are not to be touched.

Christopher Hedberg

Some people just grab your attention and hold on tight without ever intending to catch your mind in the first place.
Food chain
What goes around comes around, they say.
I dread success. To have succeeded is to have finished one's business on earth, like the male spider, who is killed by the female the moment he has succeeded in his courtship. I like a state of continual becoming, with a goal in front and not behind.

George Bernard Shaw

What garlic is to food, insanity is to art.
When confronted by a difficult problem, you can solve it more easily by reducing it to the question, "How would the Lone Ranger handle this?"
Who is D.B. Cooper, and where is he now?
Your unconscious mind will use this treatment like the gardener uses his chemicals to balance the soil where mother nature grows her flowers so that your system can again support the flowering of healthy cells and tissue and your body returns to its natural growing cycles and rhythm in partnership with the mothering of your own true nature.

Let your body become the garden that your unconscious mind waters and feeds, not only by using this treatment to nurture the healthy functioning of your entire system, but also by accessing all of your personal resources and continued learnings to support your complete healing and well-being. Your body’s ability to self-heal will blossom and flower even more now that you are so aware of its true nature, and you can relax and let your natural healing begin now, while you enjoy that special place you visit in your mind, knowing that any time you want you can return to this special place to relax and accelerate the healing that is already occurring. In a minute I am going to ask you to come fully awake, etc.

Beverly Martin Gorley

Through time our river system becomes polluted. Polluted by our thoughts, our emotions, our beliefs, the food we eat, etc. Log jams form causing the water to back up and over flow the banks. In time the overflowing water creates new channels, and a new pattern, or habit is formed. The goal of emotional, physical and spiritual growth is to clear out the pollution, take down the log jams and restore the old pathways and rivers.

John Tozeland

Have you ever heard about the story of The Hundredth Monkey? It is a study of monkeys' behaviour, off the Asian coast. What they wanted to do was study how monkeys behaved. They flew over every day and dropped down yams on the beach. The monkeys would pick up the yams and start to eat them but they'd be all sandy, and they'd spit it out. They wouldn't eat it. Day after day they'd test it out and they still wouldn't eat it. Then one day a little baby monkey took a yam that and was playing with it in the water, and the sand washed off. The monkey started eating the yam and it tasted good. Some of the other monkeys saw that and they started washing their yams. After about 100 monkeys started washing their yams in the water, monkeys on other islands that were totally separated, miles apart, started spontaneously washing their yams in the water too. Somehow what seemed to happen was that once the critical mass was achieved, the knowledge, the understanding went across time, boundaries, and space, and other monkeys were affected by it. We really do have an influence on the world. Not just our actions, but our inner most thoughts affect the world around us.

John Tozeland

I often use the analogy of a stew pot when explaining the effect of holding on to negative emotions. My mother always made stew in a great big pressure cooker. She would cut up the vegetables and meat and put them in the pressure cooker along with tomatoes and other sauces, and then turn up the heat and wait for the stew to cook. Before long, the pot would start to hiss, and mom would turn down the heat so the stew could just simmer for a while. If the heat was not turned down soon enough, the hissing would continue, and the pot would be in danger of exploding. When I started dealing with people who experienced run-away emotions, I could not help but see the similarity. If there was too much stress (heat) in their lives, they would be in danger of "boiling over". When we took the lid off and emptied some of the stew out, even with a lot of heat, the pot would not boil over and the individual would be more in control.

John Tozeland

Developing a therapeutic metaphor:

- Develop main character within a similar environment to the child

- Establish the problem in relation to the main character

- Develop obstacles and villans to represent the child's fears and negative beliefs, and develop heros or helpers to represent the child's strengths and resources.

- Provide learning experiences where the main character expands on their resources.

- Show how main character uses their resources to overcome the crisis.

- Expand on the feeling of empowerment the character has when the obstacles are overcome.

- Celebrate the character's increased sense of self worth as a result of the successful compleation of the story.

John Tozeland

"Your chair cries out to you to sit down and relax."
"Which cheese to buy?" - metaphor of makin decision
My bank manager said "Many of my clients borrow money they can hardly afford to pay back, to buy things they don't need, to impress people they don't like!"

Martyn Carruthers

Nominalizations are the ZIP-files of processes, so to speak. It may put those who do not translate it to process on the wrong track, however. That's the great (and maybe only) drawback. Those who don't automatically unpack it in their mind, take the filename for the contents and get themselves very confused in the end.)

Rene Duba

"Without habit a man might be occupied all day in dressing and undressing himself; the attitude of his body would absorb all his attention and energy; the washing of his hands or the fastening of a button would be as difficult to him on each occasion as to the child on its first trial; and he would furthermore, be completely exhausted by his exertions. Think of the pains necessary to teach a child to stand." (p. 5).

He will stand like a tower when everything rocks around him, and when his softer fellow-mortals are winnowed like chaff in the blast." (p. 16).

James invented, or at least introduced and popularized, the term "the stream of consciousness." Within each personal consciousness, we experience thinking as "sensibly continuous." Consciousness does not appear to itself chopped up in bits. It flows. So we use the metaphors of it flowing like a river or a stream (p. 26). He noted (1892) that states of mind succeed each other and that every state operates as part of a personal consciousness. (As an aside, most writers and thinkers in NLP generally utilize this definition of a state of consciousness, not as a static and non-moving "thing," but as a ongoing flow of consciousness.)

James, William (1892/ 1961). Psychology: The briefer Course. (Ed. by Gordon Allport). NY: Harper & Row.

I like to think of these "hops, skips, and jumps" of consciousness as thought-balls that bounce around in consciousness. Regarding states of consciousness, James also noted the effect that a state can have upon a person's thinking, emoting, behaving. He noted what we today call "state dependency."

junk yard dog who bark at everythimg that come near
a) The grass may be greener on the other side of the house, but the weather is the same.

b) When you do not know whether you are coming or going, a kick from behind clarifies the mind immensely.

c) Something esoteric about thresholds.

d) Life is like a comfy chair.

e) The best way to end indecision is by a kick on the backside.

John Barrow

Metaphors point beyond themselves like a finger pointing at a banana skin. Look to the banana skin, not at the finger.
This summer I was flying to Vienna on a very sunny day, and as we approached the landing strip I could see a perfect shadow of the plane racing alongside us over the fields. The lower we got the bigger it got. The moment we landed we were reunited with our shadow- the wheels touched the shadow wheels on the ground and the shadow was a big as the 'plane.
Chuang Tzu, the Chinese master of the fourth century AD wrote: 'The fish trap exists because of the fish. Once you have gotten the fish you can forget the trap. The rabbit snare exists because of the rabbit; once you have gotten the rabbit you can forget the snare. Words exist because of meaning. Once you have gotten the meaning you can forget the words. Where can I find a man who has forgotten words, so I can have a word with him?'
if you perceive yourself in a prison, a good place to start your escape plan is to study the walls, bars, and habits of the guards in detail. Only by knowing intimately what constrains you can you hope to escape it.
I went to see him and asked if what I experienced was enlightenment. He answered very gently: "How can you miss when the sun comes into darkness?"

Wolfgang Bernard

So-called scientific proofs are also beliefs. They are considered to be "real" without taking into consideration that subsequent investigations may put them into question. ( For hundreds of years we have believed that the sun is circling around the earth. Then we believed that the earth is circling around the sun. But who can say for sure that the future will not bring discoveries that might modify once again this viewpoint ?)

Wolfgang Bernard

As you woke up this morning and moved out into the day, you did so by gathering up a host of beliefs to take with you. You then put them on as spectacles through which to view the world.

L. Michael Hall, Ph.D.

According to an old Hindu legend...

..there was once a time when all human beings were gods, but they so abused their divinity that Brahma, the chief god, decided to take it away from them and hide it where it could never be found.

Where to hide their divinity was the question. So Brahma called a council of the gods to help him decide. "Let's bury it deep in the earth," said the gods. But Brahma answered, "No, that will not do because humans will dig into the earth and find it." Then the gods said, "Let's sink it in the deepest ocean." But Brahma said, "No, not there, for they will learn to dive into the ocean and will find it." Then the gods said, "Let's take it to the top of the highest mountain and hide it there." But once again Brahma replied, "No, that will not do either, because they will eventually climb every mountain and once again take up their divinity." Then the gods gave up and said, "We do not know where to hide it, because it seems that there is no place on earth or in the sea that human beings will not eventually reach."

Brahma thought for a long time and then said, "Here is what we will do. We will hide their divinity deep in the center of their own being, for humans will never think to look for it there."

All the gods agreed that this was the perfect hiding place, and the deed was done. And since that time humans have been going up and down the earth, digging, diving, climbing, and exploring--searching for something already within themselves.

Chuang Tzu has another story: strolling along the banks of the Hao river with his friend Hui Tzu, he says, 'See how the minnows come out and dart round as they please! That's what fish really enjoy!' Hui Tzu replies, 'You're not a fish - how do you know what fish enjoy?' Chuang Tzu has a retort however, 'You're not I, so how do you know I don't know what fish enjoy?' Hui Tzu comes back again, 'I'm not you, so I certainly don't know what you know. On the other hand you're certainly not a fish - so that still proves you don't know what fish enjoy!' Chuang Tzu has the last word, 'Let's go back to the original question please. You asked me how I know what fish enjoy- so you already knew I knew it when you asked the question. I know it by standing here beside the Hao.'

if you perceive yourself in a prison, a good place to start your escape plan is to study the walls, bars, and habits of the guards in detail. Only by knowing intimately what constrains you can you hope to escape it.

I went to see him and asked if what I experienced was enlightenment. He answered very gently: "How can you miss when the sun comes into darkness?"

Interview with Wolfgang Bernard Questions by Christian Campfield

So-called scientific proofs are also beliefs. They are considered to be "real" without taking into consideration that subsequent investigations may put them into question. ( For hundreds of years we have believed that the sun is circling around the earth. Then we believed that the earth is circling around the sun. But who can say for sure that the future will not bring discoveries that might modify once again this viewpoint ?)

Wolfgang Bernard

As you woke up this morning and moved out into the day, you did so by gathering up a host of beliefs to take with you. You then put them on as spectacles through which to view the world.

Recognizing the Meta-Levels of Beliefs

L. Michael Hall, Ph.D.

The Law of Requisite Variety. In systems theory there is a principle called the Law of Requisite Variety, which states in order to successfully adapt and survive, a member of a system needs a certain minimum amount of flexibility. That amount of flexibility has to be proportional to the variety in the rest of the system. One of the implications of the Law of Requisite Variety is that if you want to get to a particular goal state you have to increase the number of operations which could possibly get you there in proportion with the degree variability in the system. It is important to explore variations in operations used to accomplish goals, rather than simply repeat the same one _ even if it produced creative results in the past. Because the environments and contexts in which we operate change, the same procedure will not always produce the same result. If you want to consistently achieve your goal, you must vary the operations you are using to get to it. When you always use the same procedure, you will produce a varying result. So, as a system becomes more complex, more flexibility is required. Another implication of the Law of Requisite Variety is that the part of the system with the most flexibility will be the catalytic element within that system - like the queen in a game of chess.

Robert Dilts Presuppositions

I think being creative is playing with ideas, combining them, trying out many possibilities. The pieces that you combine may be mundane, it is the relationships between them that matter. Familiar pieces take on a new dimension when put in a new context. A car or an airplane is a heap of scrap metal until assembled in the right way. Western musicians all work with the same twelve basic notes, but the results they create are incredibly varied. I think the musical metaphor shows another aspect of being creative - a balance between freedom and structure. Creativity is not completely random. It needs an ability to see things in new ways, but there also needs to be a structure to the result. The conscious mind shapes the play of the unconscious. Totally free musical improvisation can be self indulgent and boring. Apply a structure, whether it is flamenco, jazz or classical and the result takes on a form that speaks beyond the individual musician.

Creativity - The sex appeal of the intellect Joseph O'Connor

Tony's exhilirating and foreceful style of fire, brimstone and NLP tools crystallised everything I had learnt about NLP into a bright sword of immediate power.

Peta Heskell

Автор подборки Вадим Сысуев

Используются технологии uCoz