МЕТАФОРЫ И ПРИТЧИ
Метафора - оборот речи, включающий в себя скрытое уподобление, образное сближение слов на базе их переносного значения.
Метафора может объяснить непонятное, связывая это с тем, что вы уже знаете.
|Which now, like fruit unripe, sticks on
But fall, unshaken, when they mellow be.
|A large spider in an old house built a
beautiful web in which to catch flies. Every time a fly
landed on the web and was entangled in it the spider
devoured him, so that when another fly came along he
would think the web was a safe and quiet place in which
to rest. One day a fairly intelligent fly buzzed around
above the web so long without lighting that the spider
appeared and said, "Come on down." But the fly
was too clever for him and said, "I never light
where I don't see other flies and I don't see any other
flies in your house." So he flew away until he came
to a place where there were a great many other flies. He
was about to settle down among them when a bee buzzed up
and said, "Hold it, stupid, that's flypaper. All
those flies are trapped." "Don't be
silly," said the fly, "they're dancing."
So he settled down and became stuck to the flypaper with
all the other flies.
Moral: There is no safety in numbers, or in anything else.
-- James Thurber, "The Fairly Intelligent Fly"
|A mother mouse was taking her large
brood for a stroll across the kitchen floor one day when
the local cat, by a feat of stealth unusual even for its
species, managed to trap them in a corner. The children
cowered, terrified by this fearsome beast, plaintively
crying, "Help, Mother! Save us! Save us! We're
Mother Mouse, with the hopeless valor of a parent protecting its children, turned with her teeth bared to the cat, towering huge above them, and suddenly began to bark in a fashion that would have done any Doberman proud. The startled cat fled in fear for its life.
As her grateful offspring flocked around her shouting "Oh, Mother, you saved us!" and "Yay! You scared the cat away!" she turned to them purposefully and declared, "You see how useful it is to know a second language?"
|A pencil with no point needs no eraser.|
|All I know is what the words know, and
dead things, and that makes a handsome little sum, with a
beginning and a middle and an end, as in the well-built
phrase and the long sonata of the dead.
|Anyone who has had a bull by the tail
knows five or six more things than someone who hasn't.
|A certain amount of opposition is a help, not a hindrance. Kites rise against the wind, not with it.|
|But, you must know, your father lost a
That father lost, lost his, and the survivor bound
|Be wary then; best safety lies in fear.|
|KING CLAUDIUS Break not your sleeps for
that: you must not think
That we are made of stuff so flat and dull
That we can let our beard be shook with danger
And think it pastime.
|Hello. Just walk along and try NOT to think about your INTESTINES being almost FORTY YARDS LONG!!|
|Do not worry about which side your bread is buttered on: you eat BOTH sides.|
|Drilling for oil is boring.|
|Every morning in Africa, a gazelle wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the fastest lion or it will be killed. Every morning a lion wakes up. It knows it must outrun the slowest gazelle or it will starve to death. It doesn't matter whether you are a lion or a gazelle: when the sun comes up, you'd better be running.|
|I go on working for the same reason a
hen goes on laying eggs.
-- H.L. Mencken
|On the street I saw a naked child, hungry and shivering in the cold.I became angry and said to God, "Why do you permit this? Why don't you do something?" For a while God said nothing. That night he replied. He said, "I certainly did something. I made you."|
|Minds, like parachutes, only function when they are open.|
|A dog thinks: Hey, these people I live
with feed me, love me, provide me with a nice warm, dry
house, pet me, and take good care of me... They must be
A cat thinks: Hey, these people I live with feed me, love me, provide me with a nice warm,
dry house, pet me, and take good care of me... I must be a God!
|To sow seed ideas.|
|To regain the floor.|
|You could be SELF, OTHER, OBSERVER.|
|...because a very wise person once said, "you can light a million candles off just one"... but your candle has to be lit first. If you light up, if we light up all of our candles while we're together here, then we can spread a conspiracy of ecstasy.|
|Positive intentions are like light. Their purpose is to bring illumination and warmth to the world. Symptoms and problematic behaviors emerge out of the darkness - the places that the light is unable to reach.|
|NLP principles and presuppositions are like the
fundamental concepts of Euclidian geometry. For instance,
Euclid built his geometry upon the concept of the
'point'. A point is defined as 'an entity that has a
position but no other properties'-it has no size, no
mass, no color, no shape. It is of course impossible to
prove that a point really has no size, mass, color, etc.
However, if you accept this presupposition, along with a
few others, you can build a whole system of geometry. The
conclusions of this system can then be 'proved' with
respect to their adherence to the fundamental but
unproven concepts. It is important to realize that one
does not have to accept Euclid's assumption about a point
in order to create a geometry. There are other geometries
based on different presuppositions. [For instance, MIT
mathematician Seymour Pappert (1980) built his
fascinating 'Turtle geometry' for children substituting
the notion of a 'Turtle' for a 'point'; a 'Turtle' being
an entity that has a position and a direction.]
Rex Steven Sikes
|Our maps of the world, however, are limited and don't always provide us with all the possible choices.|
|The notion of "imprinting" comes largely
from the work of Nobel laureate Konrad Lorenz. He found
out that when ducklings first hatched, for about a day or
so, they would look for a 'mother-figure.' The ducklings
searched for only one particular sub-modality to define
their mother. All the mother had to do was to move. If
something moved the ducklings would follow it. They would
follow Lorenz around while he was walking, for instance.
After a day or so the duckling would have completed its 'imprint' of the mother. After the imprint period was up, if you brought back the real mother they would ignore her completely, choosing instead to follow the individual or object to which they had been imprinted. So, when Lorenz got up in the morning, instead of being out in their nest, the ducklings that had been following him would be all curled up on the porch around his wading boots.
As a result of Leary's ideas, I gained a new appreciation for the significance of people's personal history. I realized that some traumatic episodes experienced by clients were more than simply bad memories. They were belief and identity forming "imprints" involving significant others (if your mother is a duck, for instance, it says a lot about you as well).
|The power of this metaphor is that 'healing' is
likened to 'gardening'. You can't make a tree grow.
Rather, you can prepare the soil. The gardener doesn't
go, "I'm going to make this tree grow, no matter
what!" But what the gardener can do is to remove the
rocks, make sure the soil is fertile and see that thorns
aren't surrounding the seedling. That is the essence of
Jesus' view of change. In order for a new belief to
strengthen and for new capabilities and behaviors to
develop it is necessary to:
I amplified this by saying "You know, sometimes I see a guy with a woman like your wife and at first I'm envious but then I think to myself: 'You know, having a woman like that would be sort of like owning a very expensive car that you'd always have to worry about being stolen.'"
|"Why don't you tell him that you were born with one asshole and you don't need another in your life."|
|An example of a social constraint given by Bandler
and Grinder (1975) is the number of colors named in a
language. They describe the Maidu language, used by
Native Americans in Northern California, who use only
three words to cover the spectrum: lak (red), tit
(green-blue), and tulak (yellow-orange-brown). Humans are
able to distinguish several million colors at once, but
we break the spectrum down into manageable chunks.
|For example, it is useful for us to be able to
generalize from the experience of being burned when we
touch a hot stove to a rule that hot stoves are not to be
|Some people just grab your attention and hold on tight without ever intending to catch your mind in the first place.|
|What goes around comes around, they say.|
|I dread success. To have succeeded is to have
finished one's business on earth, like the male spider,
who is killed by the female the moment he has succeeded
in his courtship. I like a state of continual becoming,
with a goal in front and not behind.
George Bernard Shaw
|What garlic is to food, insanity is to art.|
|When confronted by a difficult problem, you can solve it more easily by reducing it to the question, "How would the Lone Ranger handle this?"|
|Who is D.B. Cooper, and where is he now?|
|Your unconscious mind will use this treatment like
the gardener uses his chemicals to balance the soil where
mother nature grows her flowers so that your system can
again support the flowering of healthy cells and tissue
and your body returns to its natural growing cycles and
rhythm in partnership with the mothering of your own true
Let your body become the garden that your unconscious mind waters and feeds, not only by using this treatment to nurture the healthy functioning of your entire system, but also by accessing all of your personal resources and continued learnings to support your complete healing and well-being. Your body’s ability to self-heal will blossom and flower even more now that you are so aware of its true nature, and you can relax and let your natural healing begin now, while you enjoy that special place you visit in your mind, knowing that any time you want you can return to this special place to relax and accelerate the healing that is already occurring. In a minute I am going to ask you to come fully awake, etc.
Beverly Martin Gorley
|Through time our river system becomes polluted.
Polluted by our thoughts, our emotions, our beliefs, the
food we eat, etc. Log jams form causing the water to back
up and over flow the banks. In time the overflowing water
creates new channels, and a new pattern, or habit is
formed. The goal of emotional, physical and spiritual
growth is to clear out the pollution, take down the log
jams and restore the old pathways and rivers.
|Have you ever heard about the story of The Hundredth
Monkey? It is a study of monkeys' behaviour, off the
Asian coast. What they wanted to do was study how monkeys
behaved. They flew over every day and dropped down yams
on the beach. The monkeys would pick up the yams and
start to eat them but they'd be all sandy, and they'd
spit it out. They wouldn't eat it. Day after day they'd
test it out and they still wouldn't eat it. Then one day
a little baby monkey took a yam that and was playing with
it in the water, and the sand washed off. The monkey
started eating the yam and it tasted good. Some of the
other monkeys saw that and they started washing their
yams. After about 100 monkeys started washing their yams
in the water, monkeys on other islands that were totally
separated, miles apart, started spontaneously washing
their yams in the water too. Somehow what seemed to
happen was that once the critical mass was achieved, the
knowledge, the understanding went across time,
boundaries, and space, and other monkeys were affected by
it. We really do have an influence on the world. Not just
our actions, but our inner most thoughts affect the world
|I often use the analogy of a stew pot when explaining
the effect of holding on to negative emotions. My mother
always made stew in a great big pressure cooker. She
would cut up the vegetables and meat and put them in the
pressure cooker along with tomatoes and other sauces, and
then turn up the heat and wait for the stew to cook.
Before long, the pot would start to hiss, and mom would
turn down the heat so the stew could just simmer for a
while. If the heat was not turned down soon enough, the
hissing would continue, and the pot would be in danger of
exploding. When I started dealing with people who
experienced run-away emotions, I could not help but see
the similarity. If there was too much stress (heat) in
their lives, they would be in danger of "boiling
over". When we took the lid off and emptied some of
the stew out, even with a lot of heat, the pot would not
boil over and the individual would be more in control.
- Develop main character within a similar environment to the child
- Establish the problem in relation to the main character
- Develop obstacles and villans to represent the child's fears and negative beliefs, and develop heros or helpers to represent the child's strengths and resources.
- Provide learning experiences where the main character expands on their resources.
- Show how main character uses their resources to overcome the crisis.
- Expand on the feeling of empowerment the character has when the obstacles are overcome.
- Celebrate the character's increased sense of self worth as a result of the successful compleation of the story.
|"Your chair cries out to you to sit down and relax."|
|"Which cheese to buy?" - metaphor of makin decision|
|My bank manager said "Many of my clients borrow
money they can hardly afford to pay back, to buy things
they don't need, to impress people they don't like!"
|Nominalizations are the ZIP-files of processes, so to
speak. It may put those who do not translate it to
process on the wrong track, however. That's the great
(and maybe only) drawback. Those who don't automatically
unpack it in their mind, take the filename for the
contents and get themselves very confused in the end.)
|"Without habit a man might be occupied all day
in dressing and undressing himself; the attitude of his
body would absorb all his attention and energy; the
washing of his hands or the fastening of a button
would be as difficult to him on each occasion as to the
child on its first trial; and he would furthermore, be
completely exhausted by his exertions. Think of the pains
necessary to teach a child to stand." (p. 5).
He will stand like a tower when everything rocks around him, and when his softer fellow-mortals are winnowed like chaff in the blast." (p. 16).
James invented, or at least introduced and popularized, the term "the stream of consciousness." Within each personal consciousness, we experience thinking as "sensibly continuous." Consciousness does not appear to itself chopped up in bits. It flows. So we use the metaphors of it flowing like a river or a stream (p. 26). He noted (1892) that states of mind succeed each other and that every state operates as part of a personal consciousness. (As an aside, most writers and thinkers in NLP generally utilize this definition of a state of consciousness, not as a static and non-moving "thing," but as a ongoing flow of consciousness.)
James, William (1892/ 1961). Psychology: The briefer Course. (Ed. by Gordon Allport). NY: Harper & Row.
I like to think of these "hops, skips, and jumps" of consciousness as thought-balls that bounce around in consciousness. Regarding states of consciousness, James also noted the effect that a state can have upon a person's thinking, emoting, behaving. He noted what we today call "state dependency."
|junk yard dog who bark at everythimg that come near|
|a) The grass may be greener on the other side of the
house, but the weather is the same.
b) When you do not know whether you are coming or going, a kick from behind clarifies the mind immensely.
c) Something esoteric about thresholds.
d) Life is like a comfy chair.
e) The best way to end indecision is by a kick on the backside.
|Metaphors point beyond themselves like a finger pointing at a banana skin. Look to the banana skin, not at the finger.|
|This summer I was flying to Vienna on a very sunny day, and as we approached the landing strip I could see a perfect shadow of the plane racing alongside us over the fields. The lower we got the bigger it got. The moment we landed we were reunited with our shadow- the wheels touched the shadow wheels on the ground and the shadow was a big as the 'plane.|
|Chuang Tzu, the Chinese master of the fourth century AD wrote: 'The fish trap exists because of the fish. Once you have gotten the fish you can forget the trap. The rabbit snare exists because of the rabbit; once you have gotten the rabbit you can forget the snare. Words exist because of meaning. Once you have gotten the meaning you can forget the words. Where can I find a man who has forgotten words, so I can have a word with him?'|
|if you perceive yourself in a prison, a good place to start your escape plan is to study the walls, bars, and habits of the guards in detail. Only by knowing intimately what constrains you can you hope to escape it.|
|I went to see him and asked if what I experienced was
enlightenment. He answered very gently: "How can
you miss when the sun comes into darkness?"
|So-called scientific proofs are also beliefs. They
are considered to be "real" without taking into
consideration that subsequent investigations may put them
into question. ( For hundreds of years we have believed
that the sun is circling around the earth. Then we
believed that the earth is circling around the sun. But
who can say for sure that the future will not bring
discoveries that might modify once again this viewpoint
|As you woke up this morning and moved out into the
day, you did so by gathering up a host of beliefs to take
with you. You then put them on as spectacles
through which to view the world.
L. Michael Hall, Ph.D.
|According to an old Hindu legend...
..there was once a time when all human beings were gods, but they so abused their divinity that Brahma, the chief god, decided to take it away from them and hide it where it could never be found.
Where to hide their divinity was the question. So Brahma called a council of the gods to help him decide. "Let's bury it deep in the earth," said the gods. But Brahma answered, "No, that will not do because humans will dig into the earth and find it." Then the gods said, "Let's sink it in the deepest ocean." But Brahma said, "No, not there, for they will learn to dive into the ocean and will find it." Then the gods said, "Let's take it to the top of the highest mountain and hide it there." But once again Brahma replied, "No, that will not do either, because they will eventually climb every mountain and once again take up their divinity." Then the gods gave up and said, "We do not know where to hide it, because it seems that there is no place on earth or in the sea that human beings will not eventually reach."
Brahma thought for a long time and then said, "Here is what we will do. We will hide their divinity deep in the center of their own being, for humans will never think to look for it there."
All the gods agreed that this was the perfect hiding place, and the deed was done. And since that time humans have been going up and down the earth, digging, diving, climbing, and exploring--searching for something already within themselves.
|Chuang Tzu has another story: strolling along the
banks of the Hao river with his friend Hui Tzu, he says,
'See how the minnows come out and dart round as they
please! That's what fish really enjoy!' Hui Tzu replies, 'You're
not a fish - how do you know what fish enjoy?' Chuang
Tzu has a retort however, 'You're not I, so how do you
know I don't know what fish enjoy?' Hui Tzu comes
back again, 'I'm not you, so I certainly don't know what
you know. On the other hand you're certainly not a fish -
so that still proves you don't know what fish enjoy!'
Chuang Tzu has the last word, 'Let's go back to the
original question please. You asked me how I know what
fish enjoy- so you already knew I knew it when you asked
the question. I know it by standing here beside the Hao.'
if you perceive yourself in a prison, a good place to start your escape plan is to study the walls, bars, and habits of the guards in detail. Only by knowing intimately what constrains you can you hope to escape it.
|I went to see him and asked if what I
experienced was enlightenment. He answered very gently:
"How can you miss when the sun comes into
|So-called scientific proofs are
also beliefs. They are considered to be "real"
without taking into consideration that subsequent
investigations may put them into question. ( For hundreds
of years we have believed that the sun is circling around
the earth. Then we believed that the earth is circling
around the sun. But who can say for sure that
the future will not bring discoveries that might modify
once again this viewpoint ?)
|As you woke up this morning and moved
out into the day, you did so by gathering up a host of
beliefs to take with you. You then put them on as
spectacles through which to view the world.
Recognizing the Meta-Levels of Beliefs
L. Michael Hall, Ph.D.
|The Law of Requisite Variety.
In systems theory there is a principle called the Law
of Requisite Variety, which states in order to
successfully adapt and survive, a member of a system
needs a certain minimum amount of flexibility. That
amount of flexibility has to be proportional to the
variety in the rest of the system. One of the
implications of the Law of Requisite Variety is that if
you want to get to a particular goal state you have to
increase the number of operations which could possibly
get you there in proportion with the degree variability
in the system. It is important to explore variations in
operations used to accomplish goals, rather than simply
repeat the same one _ even if it produced creative
results in the past. Because the environments and
contexts in which we operate change, the same procedure
will not always produce the same result. If you want to
consistently achieve your goal, you must vary the
operations you are using to get to it. When you always
use the same procedure, you will produce a varying
result. So, as a system becomes more complex, more
flexibility is required. Another implication of the Law
of Requisite Variety is that the part of the system with
the most flexibility will be the catalytic element within
that system - like the queen in a game of chess.
Robert Dilts Presuppositions
|I think being creative is playing with
ideas, combining them, trying out many possibilities. The
pieces that you combine may be mundane, it is the
relationships between them that matter. Familiar pieces
take on a new dimension when put in a new context.
A car or an airplane is a heap of scrap metal until
assembled in the right way. Western musicians all work
with the same twelve basic notes, but the results they
create are incredibly varied. I think the musical
metaphor shows another aspect of being creative - a
balance between freedom and structure. Creativity is not
completely random. It needs an ability to see things in
new ways, but there also needs to be a structure to the
result. The conscious mind shapes the play of the
unconscious. Totally free musical improvisation can be
self indulgent and boring. Apply a structure, whether it
is flamenco, jazz or classical and the result takes on a
form that speaks beyond the individual musician.
Creativity - The sex appeal of the intellect Joseph O'Connor
|Tony's exhilirating and foreceful
style of fire, brimstone and NLP tools crystallised
everything I had learnt about NLP into a bright sword of